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            高原治沙 種活一棵樹難于養個娃

            • 2019年05月29日 07時47分
            • 來源: 四川日報
            • 【字體:
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            5月21日,拍攝的若爾蓋草原。保護生態,轉變發展方式,實現草畜平衡,在若爾蓋已成為共識。記者 郝飛 攝


            這是2004年7月拍攝到的若爾蓋縣境內的天然草場沙化現象。資料圖片


            5月21日,經過7個月的閉園養護和升級改造,若爾蓋花湖生態旅游區重新對外開放。記者 郝飛 攝

            四川有近千萬畝沙化土地,92.3%分布于川西北生態文明先行示范區。治沙,是這里的重中之重。川西北高原上,人、草木和沙的故事,一直在繼續。

            很艱難

            沙地不能保水,也沒有腐殖質,還有霜凍和雨雪,林草很難種活

            很努力

            禁牧,做草方格和沙障,種紅柳

            新方法

            改善土壤結構,變沙為土,地里可以種土豆了

            一線觀潮

            “就這里拍一張,對比太明顯了。”5月21日,剛爬上一道山梁,省林業和草原局荒漠化處科員姜建軍忍不住掏出手機。對面的紅原縣瓦切鎮德香村治沙點,姜建軍11年前就來過。彼時,這片8000多畝的流動沙丘上,紅柳剛剛栽下,沙障還沒布好,大風吹過,細細的沙粒隨風起舞,砸得臉生疼。如今,流動的沙丘被半人高的紅柳和密密麻麻的沙障降服。隨著春天的到來,黃沙上開始冒出細細的綠芽。

            這樣的治理模式,將有可能被取代。新方法是用化學藥劑和生物方式讓“沙”變“土”,進而讓沙地重新披上綠裝。

            老故事

            沙地5年以上才能初步恢復植被,治一畝要花七八千元

            德香村治沙點,用盡了禁牧、做草方格等措施,沙地的植被覆蓋率從10%提升至40%。但這,還達不到重新放牧的要求。

            “其實,不惡化就很好了。”跟沙漠打了快30年交道的若爾蓋縣科技局副局長張玉峰說,如果把潛在沙化土地比作潘多拉魔盒,那么,盒子里裝的就是細沙。川西北地區有多條大江大河的古河道,表層土最多半米厚,淺的只有幾厘米。土層之下,就是細細的沉積河沙。

            打開這個盒子的元兇,是天氣、人、鼠兔、旱獺和牛羊。旱獺和鼠兔不僅搶奪牲畜的口糧,還四處挖掘窩洞,讓土層下的黃沙暴露在陽光之下。

            川西北草原沙化的最大“元兇”,還是人類自己。“過度放牧的草地上,牧草能有十多厘米就不錯,封禁的草場一年能長30多厘米。”紅原縣瓦切五村牧民澤讓多爾吉說,草原上的人都知道,牲口越少的草場,草長得越好。

            治沙是一個系統性工程,最難的是如何把林草種活。沙地既不能保水,也沒有腐殖質,種下了林草,也很可能死于“營養不良”。即便種得活,這些“營養不良”的草木,也很難扛得住漫長冬季里的霜凍和雨雪。多年來,治沙人采取工程或生物方式,用牧草或者紅柳做成的草方格固定流沙,植樹種草恢復植被。這些措施,一般需要5-8年甚至更長時間,才能初步恢復地表植被,成本高達七八千元一畝。

            “在這里,種活一棵樹比養一個孩子還難。”省林科院林研所所長鄢武先坦言,多年來,川西北一直在探索更好的治沙模式,要成本低、見效快、效果好。

            新故事

            用化學制劑變沙為土,種草改土,沙地畝產土豆200斤

            若爾蓋縣唐克鎮嘎爾瑪村外,一場雨夾雪后,山梁下的紅柳和小草格外鮮嫩。

            穿過鐵絲網和護欄,記者來到了一處面積1500多畝的治沙點。這里沒有草方格,也沒有沙障。有的,只是固定流沙的紅柳,已經抽芽的披堿草和燕麥草,以及一片收獲過的土豆地。

            不做沙障、不做草方格,還能種土豆,這塊土地到底有什么魔力?

            去年開始的“沙漠土壤化技術應用研究”試點,在這片流沙治理時使用了植物性纖維黏合劑等化學制劑,嘗試將細散的高原沙粒黏合起來,存住沙地里的水和養分。

            技術在內蒙古和新疆均已實驗成功。實驗表明,化學制劑干預后,沙子之間有了某種相互約束的關系,可以讓沙子在濕潤時是流變狀態(濕土稀泥巴)、干時是固體狀態(干土團),并在兩種狀態中持續、穩定地進行轉換。同時,實驗過的沙地,所需灌溉量比當地節水灌溉定額低10%至25%。

            “這跟過去不一樣,新的治理方式先從改善土壤結構入手。”張玉峰說,有了土,就不怕長不出葉子。

            還有生物措施。張玉峰指著腳下的植物說,多年生的紅柳和披堿草能夠固沙。一年生燕麥草則是直接改良土壤的“專家”,在沙地上也能夠短短幾個月長到半米高,“風一吹,它的秸稈就倒在沙子里,地表腐殖質就有了。”這些草木都是地地道道的本地物種,不會破壞生態平衡,也不會“水土不服”。

            “所以,我們才敢種土豆。第一年畝產就有兩百斤,在高原上算很不錯了。”若爾蓋縣相關負責人介紹,通過化學制劑干預和生物措施雙管齊下,當地沙化土地地表植被恢復周期縮短為三至五年,且成本降至2000-3000元/畝。

            “我們希望,這片土地上永遠是藍天白云和綠地。”省林業和草原局相關負責人說,川西北高原上,人、草木和沙的故事,還將繼續下去,“只要方法得當,一定會是草進沙退。”

            蹲點手記

            荒漠變綠需要堅守

            5月22日,我們抵達潮濕溫暖、森林覆蓋率80%的松潘縣黃龍鄉,鼻子里不再干燥得流血。置身于翠綠山林,深吸一口清新的空氣,倍感舒暢。身旁黃龍鄉黨委書記的一句話,卻讓我的思緒一下回到一天之前。他說,我們這里氣候好、土壤好,種什么都好。

            黃龍鄉的村民們忙著給一片新林清除瘋長的雜草,若爾蓋、紅原的牧民們卻在為草長得這么難、這么慢而發愁。

            10年前,我以游客的身份第一次到若爾蓋,一眼望不到邊的大草原,讓人誤以為這一片綠,過去、現在、將來都這樣繁茂地存在著。但事實上,草原早已受到沙化的威脅。

            紅原的一處治沙點,從2008年至今,用了11年時間才將植被覆蓋率從10%提升到40%,這在當地已算非常不錯的成果。

            氣候變暖、風大、地下水下降、鼠害……我們在采訪時得知了許多造成草原荒漠化的自然原因,但人為的因素無法忽視。我們不得不為曾經欠下的生態債買單,還要在可持續發展的基礎上不再加重破壞,無論是控制放牧規模、退牧還草,還是改良土壤、優化草種,實現真正的草畜平衡,仍然任重道遠。

            兩天的采訪,治沙人的艱辛與堅守,令我們敬重。但更讓人欣慰的是牧民們意識的轉變。在紅原縣瓦切五村,承包了1.3萬畝草場的澤讓多爾吉說,他的草場從來沒有遇到沙化的威脅,因為他深知保護草原的重要。大字不識的他專門去研究草原的土層結構,還跟科研機構簽下合作協議,指導改良草種和輪牧方式。

            讓荒漠重新變綠野,需要這種堅守。

            責任編輯: 劉怡
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